GENETICS IN CLEFT LIP AND PALATE - A REVIEW
Dr. Ifzah*, Dr. Mohammad Shakeel and Dr. Zain Patel
Genetics is a science of potentials. It deals with the transfer of biological information from cell to cell, from parents to offspring, and thus from generation to generation. Clefts of the lip are the result of the failure of the lateral nasal and median nasal processes, part of the frontonasal prominence and the maxillary prominence to merge. Cleft lip and palate affects approximately 1/700 live births, with wide variability across geographic origin, racial and ethnic groups, as well as environmental exposures and socioeconomic status. Genetic contributions of cleft lip and cleft palate are thought to be a greater predictor than environmental factors. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA), transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFB3) and MSX1 are genes that have been identified as having a major role in the development of cleft lip and palate through linkage and association studies. AP2 is another gene that has been identified through the use of linkage that also has a role in the development of cleft lip and palate.
Keywords: Genetics, Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate.
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