( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



V. Chandrakala*, A Mary Saral, Utpalkumar Sanki


Aim of the present study is pharmacokinetic comparison between nasal levodopa carbidopa formulation, nasal levodopa microspheres (test) and oral levodopa carbidopa tablet in rat. The comparative pharmacokinetic study was carried out on 324 healthy experimental rats in an open label randomized, parallel, three treatment, serial sacrifice design in 54 groups. All PK parameters were calculated using a noncompartmental model. The mean AUCt for each product and time point t of measurement is calculated by using the mean concentrations (Ct) at each time point t to derive the mean profile for each product. The ratio and 90%CI for nasal l-dopa/nasal ldopa+ c-dopa formulation was 96.94(60.05-133.83) for Cmax and 92.29(66.54-118.04) for AUCt. Despite 90% CI limit not within the bioequivalence limit of 80% to 125% both formulation are equivalent at ratio test. Since animal sample size were less, 90% CI could not be met otherwise expected to meet at higher number of animal. The above statement is further proved by student t-test as probability of detecting difference between above formulations, at 95% CI was 0.547 which signifies there is no significant difference between two formulations. Since the value were not within the limit of 80-125% the test and reference product were pharmacokinetic nonequivalence and indicated that that this comparative pharmacokinetic study was well designed to conclude that the test formulation and reference formulation were pharmacokinetically non equivalent. Based on the above analysis it was found that nasal microspheres of levodopa were suprabioavailable compared to oral.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, nasal microspheres, bootstrap, l-dopa, pharmacokinetics.

[Full Text Article]



  • New Issue Published

    Its Our pleasure to inform you that, EJPMR 1 November 2021 Issue has been Published, Kindly check it on


    NOVEMBER Issue has been successfully launched on 1 November 2021.

  • EJPMR New Impact Factor

    Its our Pleasure to Inform you that EJPMR Impact Factor has been increased from  5.804 to 6.222, due to high quality Publication at International Level

  • Index Copernicus Value

    EJPMR Received Index Copernicus Value 79.57, due to High Quality Publication in EJPMR at International Level

  • Journal web site support Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Saffari for easy download of article without any trouble.


  • Article Invited for Publication

    Article are invited for publication in EJPMR Coming Issue

Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI )