( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , Academia , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 7.065

 ICV - 79.57



Zahra Zahid Piracha*, Umar Saeed, Amal Sohail Malik, Muhammad Nouman Tariq, Syed Shayan Gilani, Laiba Razaq, Manaal Amir Basra, Talha Abdul Waheed, Ayesha Israr, Seneen Noor and Elyeen Noor


Background: Opioid receptor agonists, encompassing substances like heroin and prescription opioids, pose a pronounced public health challenge globally. Non-fatal opioid overdoses, especially prevalent among prescription opioid users, exceed fatal cases. The effectiveness of Take-Home Naloxone (THN) programs, proven in higher-income nations, remains uncertain in lower-income countries. Objectives: This study aims to comprehensively analyze review articles addressing opioid overdose and harm reduction strategies, with a specific focus on resource-constrained settings. Objectives include identifying prevalent risk factors, evaluating the effectiveness of harm reduction measures, and formulating a practical change plan for implementing THN strategies in developing nations. Methods: A meticulous search across Medline/PubMed, Science Direct, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and the Virginia Commonwealth University library facilitated the identification of relevant review articles. Keywords such as "Naloxone," "take-home naloxone," and "opioid overdose prevention" were strategically employed. Data extraction emphasized overdose prevalence, contributing factors, and harm reduction efficacy. Thematic analysis categorized data into interventions, socio-economic factors, risk factors, and harm reduction strategies. Results: Findings underscore the urgency of tailored harm reduction strategies in lower-income countries, recognizing regional disparities, cultural influences, and healthcare infrastructure variations. THN emerges as a critical intervention, but its implementation requires nuanced approaches. Challenges include limited healthcare resources, stigma, and cultural factors influencing opioid use patterns. Conclusion: This study provides insights into the socio-economic determinants of opioid overdose and existing harm reduction strategies, laying the groundwork for future efforts. Tailored interventions, encompassing drug safety testing, supply management, injectable opioid programs, pain management, policy solutions, and stigma reduction, are crucial in addressing opioid-related challenges in resource-limited contexts. The findings guide a practical change plan for THN implementation in developing nations.

Keywords: Keywords such as "Naloxone," "take-home naloxone," and "opioid overdose prevention" were strategically employed.

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  • New Issue Published

    Its Our pleasure to inform you that, EJPMR 1 July 2024 Issue has been Published, Kindly check it on


    JULY 2024 issue has been successfully launched on JULY 2024.

  • EJPMR New Impact Factor

    EJPMR Impact Factor has been Increased to 7.065 for Year 2024.

  • Index Copernicus Value

    EJPMR Received Index Copernicus Value 79.57, due to High Quality Publication in EJPMR at International Level

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  • Article Invited for Publication

    Article are invited for publication in EJPMR Coming Issue

Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database Academia