EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

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 ISSN 2394-3211

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Abstract

A STUDY ON EFFECT OF HERBAL PHONOPHORESIS ON PAW VOLUME IN FREUND’S ADJUVANT INDUCED ARTHRITIS IN EXPERIMENTAL RATS

Dr. P. Lakshmikanth*

ABSTRACT

Background: Arthritis is a musculoskeletal system disorder following mechanical and biological events that destabilize normal coupling between degradation and synthesis withinarticular cartilage. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the commonest autoimmune diseases, is a chronic, progressive, systemic inflammatory disorder affecting the synovial joints and typically producing symmetrical arthritis that leads to joint destruction (Figure 1), which is responsible for the deformity and disability. Objective: To evaluate the effect of ultrasound with herbal phonophoresis on paw volume in freund‟s adjuvant induced arthritis in experimental rats. Intervention: Adult Wistar male rat with an initial body weight of 180 to 200g were taken, and divided into four groups each containing six animals. Group I served as normal rats. On day zero, group II to IV rats were injected into the sub plantar region of the left hind paw with 0.1ml of Freund‟s complete adjuvant. This consists of Mycobacterium butyricum suspended in heavy paraffin oil by thorough grinding with motor and pestle to give a concentration of 5mg/ml (This dose confirmed in our lab followed by different concentrations (1 to 10mg/ml)). Design: Comparative Experimental Design. Results: Within group analysis revealed significant improvement in either groups (p<0.05) after 1week of intervention. However when both groups were compared, there was no statistical significant difference found. Conclusion: this study conclused that there was significant effect on ultrasound with herbal phonophoresis on paw volume in freund‟s adjuvant induced arthritis in experimental rats.

Keywords: Phonophoresis, Arthritis, Oxidative stress, Freund?s complete adjuvant.


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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database Academia