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An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



Souhail Aboulfadl*, Chafika Faraj, Karim Rabeh, Btissam Ameur, Bouchra Belkadi and Fouad Mellouki


Culex pipiens mosquitoes are competent vectors for several arboviruses worldwide. In Morocco, they specially transmit West Nile virus (VWN) and Rift Valley fever virus (VFVR) (Bkhache et al., 2018). The repeated treatment with chemical insecticides in areas highly exposed to the mosquitoes’ nuisance leads to the resistance development. The lack of data on resistance mechanisms in Morocco allow us to evaluate both of the levels of DDT resistance accompanied by the frequency of the mutated gene associated L1014F kdr, and the levels of bendiocarb resistance accompanied by the frequency of the mutated gene associated G119S ace-1R respectively in both regions Benslimane and Mohammedia. Methods: Mosquito larvae were collected from two different breeding sites: El Jazeera from Benslimane region and Ouled Hamimoun from Mohammedia region. Adults were reared from collected immature stages in the laboratory at 28 ± 1 °C with 80% relative humidity. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were conducted on adult females emerged from collected larvae. Specimens were identified as Culex pipiens following morphological criteria under microscope using Culicidae of African Mediterranean software (Giner et al., 1999). Identified mosquitoes were then tested for the presence of the L1014F kdr and G119S ace-1R mutations using PCR assay. Results: Our results showed that all the tested populations have a resistance to DDT 4% with a mortality rate ranging from 2% to 74%, and to bendiocarb 0.1% with a mortality rate ranging from 32% to 74%. In plus, 30 individuals from each region were screened for both mutations L1014F kdr and G119S ace-1R. The molecular identification of survivor genes shows the presence of L1014F kdr mutation in both region with different frequencies. The allelic frequency was low with 0.15% in Mohammedia region and complete absence of resistant homozygotes alleles 1014F/1014F in the same region, but average with 0.65% in Benslimane region. However, the G119S ace-1R mutation was absent in both regions. These results are consistent with those published by Aboulfadl et al. (2020) on the same populations and who found that the resistance of Mohammedia populations is completely metabolic and based only on cytochrome P450 enzymes while that of Benslimane populations is partially metabolic. Conclusion: The study highlights the implication of L1014F kdr mutation in DDT resistance and G119S ace-1R mutation in bendiocarb resistance in Cx. pipiens populations from two regions in Morocco.

Keywords: G119S ace-1R; L1014F kdr; Culex pipiens; Vector control; Insecticide resistance; Morocco.

[Full Text Article]



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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database