HEPATO-RENAL TOXICITY CARICA PAPAYA EXTRACTS ON STREPTOZOCIN INDUCED DIABETES IN RATS.
Brown Holy* and Thompson N. Imomoemi
Background: In developing countries, the traditional use of Carica papaya leaf is being investigated as an alternative to standard treatments for a range of ailments in which diabetes mellitus is one of them. Many people are aware of the protective benefits of the Carica papaya plant but there is need for its safety profile to be scientifically verified. Especially the use of the leaves which has more claimed therapeutic benefits than just for nutritional needs. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing the nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity of Carica papaya leaf in streptozocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Methanol, ethanol, crude and aqueous extracts of Carica papaya leaves were extracted. The phytochemical analysis of all the extracts were carried out. Thirty (30) albino rats grouped into six (6) were induced diabetes by intraperitoneal administration of 45 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). Four (4) groups were fed methanolic, ethanolic, crude and aqueous extract of Carica papaya while two groups which were fed glibenclamide and normal saline as controls for fourteen (14) days. Blood sample from all the rats in each group were for biochemical analysis were collected on 14th day of administration of the extracts while kidney and liver specimens were collected for histological analysis. Results: The phytochemical analysis showed that all the extracts contained alkaloids, tannins, phlobatamins, flavonoids, anthraquinnones, saponins, carbohydrates and cardiac glycosides. The result showing the effect of rats fed the various extracts of Carica papaya leave on the urea and creatinine concentration were statistically non-significant (p> 0.05) compared to rats fed normal saline for methanolic, aqueous and crude extracts whereas those fed ethanolic extracts where significantly reduced (p<0.05) for urea concentration compared to control normal saline. The results showing the effect of Carica papaya extract on the hepatic indices of the rats were statistically not significantly different (p >0.05) compared to controls, for serum alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum pyruvate oxaloacetate transaminase activities. Conclusions: The findings from this study shows that methanolic, ethanolic, aqueous and crude extracts of Carica papaya at the dose used in this study does not cause hepato-renal toxicity, instead it improves the recovery from inflammatory process of liver and kidney cells.
Keywords: Carica papaya, ethanolic, methanolic, anthraquinnones, saponins.
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