ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY OF PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L AGAINST CHLOROQUINE SENSITIVE PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM 3D7 STRAIN
D. Santha Kumari, P.V.V. Satish, K. Somaiah, N. Sree Rekha, P. Brahmam, Dr. K. Sunita*
The present study aimed to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plant Parthenium hysterophorus against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain and cytotoxicity against THP-1 cell line. The plant P. hysterophorus was collected from Acharya Nagarjuna University Campus, Nagarjunanagar, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Crude extracts from dried leaves, stem bark and root of P. hysterophorus was prepared through soxhlet extraction using methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform sequentially. These extracts were tested in vitro against laboratory adopted P. falciparum 3D7 strain. The crude extracts were also tested for their cytotoxicity against THP-1 cell line. The phytochemical screenings were also conducted with standard methods. The methanol extract of leaf, stem bark and root; ethyl acetate extract of leaf and root showed IC50 values from 5-50 μg/mL with good antimalarial activity and were significant at P <0.05 and <0.01. The ethyl acetate extract of stem bark and the chloroform extract of stem bark showed IC50 values ranging from 50 to 100 μg/mL which shown mild activity. Out of all the extracts, the methanol extract of leaf (IC50 = 12.15 μg/mL) has shown excellent antimalarial activity. The chloroform extracts of leaf and root were inactive. All the extracts were non toxic to THP-1 cells but methanol extract of leaf (IC50 = 11.50 μg/mL) and methanol extract of root (IC50 = 10.23 μg/mL) shows cytotoxicty against THP-1 cell lines. The phytochemical screening has revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, carbohydrates, phenols, saponins, phlobatannins and steroids. It is concluded that the further work will be essential to methanol extract of leaves for the development of antimalarial drugs due to slight cytotoxicity.
Keywords: Parthenium hysterophorus, antiplasmodial activity, IC50, cytotoxic activity, selectivity index.
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