OVERVIEW OF BIOLOGICAL MARKERS AS POTENTIAL TOXICOLOGICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF XENOBIOTIC EXPOSURE
Professor Estella Tembe Fokunang* (PhD) and Prof. Charles Ntungwen Fokunang (PhD)
The identification and recognition of xenobiotic in our environment poses great risk for living organisms. It addresses the risk, there is a need to detect the toxicants in the organism, and to understand how their intoxication is related to specific organ alterations and clinical symptoms. The association of toxic levels within the organism and the toxic response can be very complex difficult to establish risk forecast since toxicity depends on several factors, namely toxicokinetic, exposure dose, duration types of toxicant and genetic factors. Biological markers that are used in clinical trials include those that are used as study endpoints, as well as those that are for specific exploratory biomarkers. Exploratory biomarkers are used for archiving a suitable test battery end point that can subsequently be tested and validated, for use other future endpoint in clinical trials. One of the methods to quantify the exposure to xenobiotics and its potential impact on living organisms, including the human being, is the monitoring by the use of the so-called biomarkers. This paper attempts to give an overview of biological markers as a potential end points to xenobiotics exposure toxicological and pharmacological indicators.
Keywords: Biological markers, Xenobiotics exposure, toxicokinetics, pharmacological indicatrs, clinical trials.
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