EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

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 ISSN 2394-3211

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Abstract

TAREEKH-E-TASHREEH-E-QALB (HISTORY OF HEART’S ANATOMY) IN CLASSICAL GREECE

Dr. Farheen Anwar*, Prof. Dr. Nafasat Ali Ansari, Dr. Abu Bakar Qadri and Dr. Kiran Singh

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Unani Medicine is a form of traditional medicine originated in Ancient Greece almost 2500 years back.[1] Ancient Greek period is conventionally broken down into: Archaic period, Classical period and Hellenistic period. The Archaic Period is from 750 to 480 BCE, the Classical Period is from 479 to 323 BCE and the Hellenistic Period is from 323 to 30 BCE.[2] Tashreeh means “to cut”, “to dissect” and “to open” according to Arabic lugat (dictionary). It is “study of organs” in which shape & form (shakl wa surat), color (rang), quality (kaifiyat), structure (saakht), relations (baahmi nisbat), and functions (afa’al) are studied.[4] The Nizam-e-Uruqi Qalbi or “Cardio-Vascular System” is also called as blood-vascular, or simply the circulatory system. It consists of the heart, a muscular pumping device, and a closed system of vessels called arteries, veins, and capillaries.[8] For those who wants to understand cardiac function not only in the normal heart but more importantly in diseased heart, a precise understanding of cardiac anatomy is a prerequisite.[9] Background: The history of the cardiac anatomy dates back to 3500 B.C. when the Greeks and Egyptians based their understanding of this structure on their religious beliefs. Material and Methods: This literature review seeks to collate and discuss peer-reviewed articles on the history of cardiac anatomy. Conclusion: The history of the cardiac anatomy was widely influenced by intellects of varying backgrounds, which led to significant contributions to our current understanding.

Keywords: Unani Medicine, Classical Greece, Tashreeh-ul-badan (Anatomy), Nizam-e-Uruqi Qalbi (Cardiovascular system), Qalb (Heart), Aza-e-raisa.


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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database Academia