A HOSPITAL BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY ON MODIFIABLE RISK FACTORS OF HYPERTENSION AT MANGALORE, KARNATAKA
Satish S.*, Fathimathul Arifa, Haritha Praveen, Khatheeja Ramseena, Mashitha, Nihala Afrath and Shabaraya A.R.
Hypertension is a major public health problem; identification of its risk factors supports intervention policies to minimize morbidity and mortality. The objective of present study was to identify association of modifiable risk factors of hypertension. A case control study was conducted at Srinivas Hospital, Mangalore, and Karnataka. Random sample of 100 cases and 100 controls were chosen. Data was collected using a questionnaire which included socio-demographic data, lifestyle, and BP, BMI were measured. Collected data was analyzed using MedCalc statistical software for odds ratio, confidence interval and P value. The most common modifiable risk factors of hypertension were smoking, alcohol physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes. Findings of relative risk estimation of effect of modifiable risk factors on hypertension reveal that, current smokers (OR:1.8824, CI:0.9871 -3.5895), daily smokers (OR:2.5766, CI:1.2163- 5.4581), daily smokers in past (OR:1.8824, CI:0.9871 -3.5895), who were using smokeless tobacco (OR:2.5766, CI:1.2163 -5.4581) and who have habit of alcohol consumption (OR:2.0684, CI:0.9610-4.4520) were at high risk for hypertension. Similarly, inadequate fruits in diet (OR: 6.0926, CI: 2.3951 -15.4981), inadequate vegetables (OR: 0.6528, CI: 0.1785-2.3875) in diet were also the significant risk factors of hypertension, whereas people doing work with physical activity (OR: 0.4898, CI: 0.2456 -0.9767), having the habit of walking or jogging (OR: 0.7257, CI: 0.4161 -1.2655) were at less risk of hypertension. The most common non-modifiable risk factors were age and family history. Study suggests that significant predictors of hypertension were obesity, physical inactivity and social habits. In conclusion, hypertension is strongly driven by a set of modifiable risk factors. Massive public awareness campaign targeting on risk factors is essential in controlling hypertension, especially focusing on physical exercise and control of diabetes, obesity, and on quitting smoking.
Keywords: Case–control, hypertension, Karnataka, risk factors, WHO STEPS.
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