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An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , Academia , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 7.065

 ICV - 79.57



Davies C. Vergheese*, Kamal Sonya, Sahir Aftab and Sandeep David


Introduction: Caudal epidural block is useful to provide anaesthesia for perineal and penile surgical procedures in the adults. But, it is not popular among the anaesthetists due to the high failure rate with the landmark based technique. Ultrasound scanning helps to visualise the sacral hiatus, sacrococcygeal ligament and the caudal epidural space. Real-time needling and injection into the caudal epidural space can be done precisely under ultrasound guidance. This may improve the success rate so that it is a viable alternative. Ultrasound guided caudal blocks are regularly practiced in our institute for the last six years. Material and Method: Caudal blocks done in adults in the year 2016 was analysed retrospectively in this study. This included 306 patients above 18years. Results: The study showed a success rate of 92.19% against the 68- 75% reported for the adult caudal block by the landmark technique. It provided good and prolonged post operative analgesia. The first rescue analgesic request was a median 604 minutes with a standard deviation of 155 minutes. No incidence of Post Operative Urinary Retention (POUR) demanding catheterisation of the bladder was noted, which is common in perineal procedures done under spinal or general anaesthesia. The incidence of spinal puncture head ache of the spinal anaesthesia is totally avoided. Oral liquids were allowed up to 2 hours before the start of surgery. Post operatively oral liquids were started once the patient is out of the procedural sedation. Only 27 patients (8.8%) received intravenous fluids, of volume 300 to 1000 ml. Conclusion: Perineal and penile procedures can conveniently be done under caudal epidural block in adults. Ultrasound guidance improves the efficiency, safety and patient comfort of caudal block in adults; and make it a practical and viable option. It provides good and prolonged post operative analgesia. Post Operative Urinary Retention (POUR) which is common after perineal procedures done under spinal or general anaesthesia may be totally avoided. Overall, Caudal block in adults enhances the ‘Enhanced Recovery After Surgery’.

Keywords: ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia, caudal epidural block, Ropivacaine, Post Operative Urinary Retention (POUR), Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS).

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  • New Issue Published

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database Academia